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Team: Nurunnahar Akter, Elena Kulinskaya, Nicholas Steel and Ilyas Bakbergenuly

Project: Hormone replacement therapy and its impact on morbidity and longevity

Working paper 1: Review of Hormone Replacement Therapy in United Kingdom by Nurunnahar Akter

Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) is a treatment that is commonly used to alleviate the menopausal symptoms such as hot flashes, night sweats, mood swings and sleep disturbances. HRT involves replacing estrogen and progesterone hormones that are at a lower level as menopause approaches in women. Different types of HRT are used to treat menopausal symptoms depending on the condition and level of hormones in women’s body. Several observational studies and randomized trials show that HRT has a significant impact on increasing longevity and decreasing the risk of chronic disease like coronary heart disease (CHD), dementia and breast cancer among younger and older postmenopausal women. However, there is still much concern raised about the risk and benefits issue of HRT treatment since adverse effects also have been found on many postmenopausal women. If the type of hormones, routes of administration and its accurate dose at the beginning of the therapy is perfectly known then it may possible to increase longevity in women significantly.

Our main aim of this PhD project is to investigate how different types of HRT treatment including their doses affect on various chronic diseases and to estimate morbidity and longevity risks using various statistical methods such as survival analysis, linear and nonlinear regression model, and hazard model. The Health Improvement Network (THIN) database will be used to extract relevant data.


1.Paganini-Hill, Annlia, Maria M. Corrada, and Claudia H. Kawas. "Increased longevity in older users of postmenopausal estrogen therapy: the Leisure World Cohort Study." Menopause (New York, NY) 13.1 (2006): 12.
2.Zandi, Peter P., et al. "Hormone replacement therapy and incidence of Alzheimer disease in older women: the Cache County Study." Jama 288.17 (2002): 2123-2129.
3.Santen, Richard J. "Menopausal hormone therapy and breast cancer." The Journal of steroid biochemistry and molecular biology 142 (2014): 52-61.